Islamic, muslim, or hijri calendar (arabic: at-taqwm al-hijr) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
The release of java 8, the islamic calendar is supported in the new date and time api.
Muslims use an islamic calendar which is calculated several years in advance (currently up to 1444 ah/2022 ce) by the turkish presidency of religious affairs (diyanet ileri bakanl).
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To the somewhat variable nature of the islamic calendar, in most muslim countries, the islamic calendar is used primarily for religious purposes, while the solar-based gregorian calendar is still used primarily for matters of commerce and agriculture.
Pre-islamic arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it.
^ allal el fassi: "aljawab assahih wannass-hi al-khaliss an nazilati fas wama yataallaqo bimabda-i acchouhouri al-islamiyati al-arabiyah", "[.
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Because of its nature as a purely lunar calendar, it cannot be used for agricultural purposes and historically islamic communities have used other calendars for this purpose: the egyptian calendar was formerly widespread in islamic countries, and the iranian calendar and the 1789 ottoman calendar (a modified julian calendar) were also used for agriculture in their countries.
Dawoodi bohra follow the tabular islamic calendar (see section below) prepared on the basis of astronomical calculations from the days of fatimid imams.
2007, the islamic society of north america, the fiqh council of north america and the european council for fatwa and research announced that they will henceforth use a calendar based on calculations using the same parameters as the umm al-qura calendar to determine (well in advance) the beginning of all lunar months (and therefore the days associated with all religious observances).
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^ muhammad mutawalla al-sharawi: fiqh al-halal wal haram (edited by ahmad azzabi), dar al-qalam, beyrouth, 2000, p.
Both al-biruni and al-mas'udi suggest that the ancient arabs used the same month names as the muslims, though they also record other month names used by the pre-islamic arabs.
Both the islamic calendar and the astronomical-lunar-calendar take no account of the solar year in their calculations, and thus both of these strictly lunar based calendar systems have no ability to reckon the timing of the four seasons of the year.
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These months were considered forbidden both within the new islamic calendar and within the old pagan meccan calendar.
Tabular islamic calendar is a rule-based variation of the islamic calendar, in which months are worked out by arithmetic rules rather than by observation or astronomical calculation.
1 october 2016, as a cost-cutting measure, saudi arabia no longer uses the islamic calendar for paying the monthly salaries of government employees but the gregorian calendar.
Still, the islamic calendar seldom varies by more than three days from the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, and roughly approximates it.
According to this view, nas is related to the pre-islamic practices of the meccan arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation.
To the fact that the islamic calendar relies on certain variable methods of observation which are used to determine its month-start-dates, the start-dates of its months sometimes vary slightly from the month-start-dates of the astronomical lunar calendar, which are based directly on astronomical calculations.
May be made online (see list below), by using the tabular islamic calendar (see tabular islamic calendar), or, for greatest accuracy (one day in 15,186 years), via the jewish calendar.
It is also used by muslims to determine the proper days of islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to mecca.
 some scholars, both muslim and western, maintain that the pre-islamic calendar used in central arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern islamic calendar.