Purchasing eggs, it is recommended to refrigerate them in their original carton and place them in the coldest part of the refrigerator, not in the door due to loss of coolness from repeated opening of the door.
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However, in an age of such formidable social problems as high prices, environmentalism, shortages, antibusiness sentiment, and changing life-styles, these problems should be regarded as disguised opportunities for the companies that have the courage and imagination to perceive them.
The discriminant analysis was quite successful in categorizing subjects who considered unit pricing of either high or moderate importance.
During this time, congressional committees were conducting hearings concerning existing and proposed legislation on packaging and labeling, and little information about the effect of the unit pricing concept upon consumer behavior was available.
Tables 2 and 3 present means, standard deviations and rankings of the attributes by region and unit price orientation.
Percent of the over 2,000 respondents and 82 percent of the regular king soopers shoppers (n = 816) were aware of the unit pricing program that had been installed.
The only clear instance in which unit pricing would be of benefit would be in making price comparisons among different sizes of an identical product.
What does open dating and unit pricing mean
Granger and billson (1972) conducted an experiment examining change in consumer preferences for different package sizes when price per unit information was explicitly provided.
Regardless of the increasing awareness of consumerism, the consumeristic variables such as unit pricing and nutritional labeling still remain as less important variables in the shoppers store choice decision.
Approximately 48 percent of the shoppers that were interviewed at the end of the study indicated that they had noticed and understood unit price labels.
Unit pricing usage a study of the usage of unit pricing between regions showed that over half of the subjects from both regions considered unit pricing to be an important attribute of a supermarket.
The refinement of the sample yielded 64 subjects in the pennsylvania sample who were categorized as "high unit pricing" and "high nutritional labeling" (hup, hnl), or "moderate unit pricing" and "moderate nutritional labeling," (mup, mnl).
Because of the conflict of interests between consumer advocates and supermarket executives, some research to determine the impact of unit pricing on consumer behavior was undertaken by food store organizations, consumer advocate groups, and researchers interested in the consumer decision process.
Table 1 overall rankings of mean importance scores of supermarket attributes in florida and pennsylvania each sample was then divided on the basis of a seven-point scale designed to obtain an importance rating of the unit pricing variable.
Codes are a type of closed dating which enable the tracking of product in interstate commerce.
What do open dating and unit pricing mean
Yet this does not mean that its interest will not ultimately coincide with that of the public.
A dominant share of a market is likely to mean enjoying the highest profits of any of the companies serving that market.
A study of the use of unit pricing to switch sizes and brands did not yield any statistically significant result.
A larger market share usually means greater public visibility; consumer groups may choose the more visible companies as the targets of their complaints, demonstrations, and lawsuits.
For example, the brookings institutions classic examination of the pricing practices of 20 major corporations (including general motors, general electric, general foods, and u.
Giant foods interpreted the various consumer criticisms of the late 1960s not as presenting unwelcome problems but as offering useful new opportunities.
A possibility in unit pricing proposals is that consumers might be swerved from their present practice of value shopping and become conditioned to price buying at the expense of such variables as taste, quality, and nutrition.
It appears that the unit pricing and nutritional labeling variables are less important in the shopper's store choice decision than more traditional variables.
To reduce consumer confusion and wasted food, fsis recommends that food manufacturers and retailers that apply product dating use a "best if used by" date.
Unit pricing was defined as the pricing of meat, fish, cereals, bread, beer and other food and household items by the package.
Purpose of tee study the present study sought to determine: (1) the importance of consumer oriented variables such as unit pricing and nutritional labeling to housewives in relation to other supermarket choice variables such as good selections, fresh produce, and cleanliness; (2) the housewives' use of unit pricing as a guide to brand and package size selection; and (3) the relationship of demographics of housewives' perception of the importance of unit pricing.
Area found that 47 percent of those who shopped in a unit price store had used unit pricing, and that approximately 38 percent had used the information on one-half or more of the products purchased.
Both samples exhibited little difference in the use of unit pricing either to switch sizes or brands.
Other pricing studies, not specifically concerned with unit pricing, are of interest in understanding the importance of the role of price as a purchase criterion for grocery products.
To an individual consumer unit pricing should affect price as a determining variable in the shopper's buying decisions.
Results table 1 presents the mean scores and rankings for the importance of the supermarket attributes.
The use of unit pricing information by consumers varied in a similar manner but was generally at a lower level.
The eleven importance attributes of supermarket excluding unit pricing and nutritional labeling were used as independent variables, and the initial six variables correctly classified 78% of the subjects.
It seems to be a part that only one company in each industry can play meaningfully, since others are typed as weak imitators.
The king soopers study revealed that approximately 53 percent of the regular shoppers had used unit price information.
Nutritional labeling is ranked 8 by the pittsburgh high unit pricing group and 11 by the pittsburgh moderate unit pricing group.
Closed dating is a code that consists of a series of letters and/or numbers applied by manufacturers to identify the date and time of production.
A study in state college, pennsylvania indicated that 61 percent (n = 90) of the shoppers in a it pricing store were aware of the concept.
] introduction the unit pricing concept became popular in the 1960's with the rise in concern for consumer interest in supermarket shopping.
This group constituted approximately 65 percent of the king soopers shoppers that were aware of unit pricing.
It would appear from this rather simple experiment that while unit pricing significantly reduces the error rate, it does not eliminate shopping errors entirely.
, president of the benner tea company of burlington, iowa, asserted that the housewife could save 10 percent on her shopping bill with the aid of unit pricing (fuller, margaret, 1970).
One source of food waste arises from consumers or retailers throwing away wholesome food because of confusion about the meaning of dates displayed on the label.
The codes are not meant for the consumer to interpret as a "best if used by" date.
"the impact of unit pricing on channel systems," in combined proceedings, 1971 spring and fall conferences, fred c.
Josephen grimes, vice-president for sales at jewel stores, asserted that unit pricing would cost jewel 0,000 a year (press release, jewel food stores, 1970).
The food industry was quite critical of this innovation, since pending legislation requires such a pricing policy.
Effects of unit pricing on shopper behavior an analysis of warehouse withdraws s during the first eight weeks of the unit pricing program of jewel tea company showed no major shift to lower price products.
Twenty additional housewives were sent to a unit pricing store for the same purpose, the results of which showed an error rate of 24 percent.
A statement of the grocery manufacturers of american, incorporated, illustrates the latter position: "it would appear that unit pricing would provide very limited benefits and in some cases might actually cause confusion.
A validation analysis was conducted to determine the proportion of correctly classified observations due to sampling error or search bias, and that portion due to the true differences between the variable means (10).
Nevertheless, attributes such as unit pricing and nutritional labeling may be important parts of a package of attributes that could appeal to a segment of the market.
In the state college study housewives' responses to open-ended questions probing why they purchased certain sizes of a particular product even though they realized that size is not necessarily the cheapest per ounce, indicated that unit pricing is relatively insignificant in their buying decisions.
Results on table 7 shows that 42% of the "hup, hnl" subjects use unit pricing frequently as compared to 22% of the "mup, mnl" subjects.
In fact, supermarkets may gain more than the consumers as unit pricing improves self discipline.